Muhammad Nagar 29.5N, 78.5E
Several coins are found at the site and some images have been published (though not weights). They are in poor condition and descirbed as PMC
and Kushan but it appears some may be PMC and the Ardoxsho may be a later coin of the Kanishka II to III period.
Coins -> Copper -> PMC
Coins -> Copper -> ? (at least six are pictured, one a later Yaudheya coin)
IAR 1997-98: 40-54
Nagar 31.1N 75.8E
IAR 1976-77: 42 [Coins and a seal reading 'Sri Maha-senapati Ramguptasya']
Coins -> Copper -> ?
Coins -> Copper -> Yaudheya -> ?
Noh Bharatpur, Rajasthan
Copper coins but few details supplied
IAR 1971-72: 41-42
IAR 1970-71: 31-32
IAR 1968-69: 26 [copper cast coins]
IAR 1963-64: 28-29
IAR 1966-67: 30-31
IAR 1965-66: 38
IAR 1964-65: 34-35 [cast copper coins]
IAR 1963-64: 28 [Mitra rulers of Mathura]
Panda Samastipur District, Bihar (25.66N, 85.8E)
IAR 2002-03:47-48 'A Kushan Coin'
Patna is one of the few sites there are a number of literary references for. The Brikatkalpavritti apparently refers to a Murunda King of
Patna, an epithet which seems to designate the Kushans in Puranic accounts. Digs at Kumrahahr have been undertaken twice in the twentieth
century. Though neither record is particularly good it is clear from Spooner's originaly dig that Kushan coins were found in in strata that
overlay coins of Chandragupta. It is reported (Singh, 1973) that gold coins were also found, apparently a Vasudeva and Kanishka II.
Coins from the later dig at Kumrahahr are PMC Silver (20), PMC Silver coated (8), PMC Copper (32), Cast Copper (72), Lankey Bull of Kosam (6),
Panchala - Bhumimitra (1),
Ayodhya (1) Kanishka (2, perhaps 3), Huvishka (3), Kushan Imitation 1, Chandragupta II (19), Mughal (6).
There are a group of 'peaked cap' terracotta heads which have been associated with the Kushans but they actually don't resemble Kushan figures
and in any case the strata show fairly clearly that the Kushan coins are part of the general circulating currency of the middle Ganges and
were deposited centuries after they were issued.
Singh, 1973: 127
IAR 2-63: 5-6 [site of Rajgir]
Altekar, AS & Mishra, V Report on Kumrahar Excavations 1951-55, KP Jayaswal Research Institute, 1959
Purana Qila Delhi
IAR 1970-71: 9-11 [A few yaudheya and Kushan and 1 gold plated Gupta imitation reported]
IAR 1969-70: 4 [Coins of Mathura kings, Kushans and Yaudheya reported. Sample are pictured, appear to be a Vasudeva
and a mis-identified Kota coin]
IAR 54-55: 13-14 [to check]
Qal'a-i Haji 34.42N, 70.4E
A single Wima Kadphises coin was found in a stupa at this site.
Ball, 1982: No.847
Qal'a-i Shahi 34.63N, 70.4E
At the site of a stupa and monastery, with Kushan, Hindu Shahi and Islamic coins found.
Ball, 1982: No.880
Qunduz 34.72N, 70.85E
A number of preliminary and unpublished surveys have been undertaken around Qunduz.
Ball, 1982: 930 & 931
Raja Karna Ka Qila Karnal dist. Haryana
IAR 1970-71: 15-16 ['copper coins']
Rajghat Varanasi district
IAR 1964-65: 43-44 [2 Kushan coins]
IAR 1963-64: 58-59 [Gold coins Chandragupta, Kumaragupta, Skandagupta]
IAR 1962-63: 41
IAR 1961-62: 57
IAR 1960-61: 39 [Cast Copper Coins]
Rangmahal 29.2N 73.6E
The strata are properly recorded in the publication of this site, and the coins are illustrated and three potentially useful radiocarbon
dates are available. The site appears to have been in use for only a short time. It has yielded 3 Kanishka, 4 Huvishka (all main mint),
4 Vasudeva, 6 Kanishka II, a Vasishka, at least one Kanishka III, some post Kanishka III, Acyuta, and Acyuta/Kushan style coins. (41 coins in
total, though most are hard to identify in an uncleaned condition).
The lowest strata of Trench I contains coins of Kanishka III and the latest strate yielding coins yield punch mark coins, Kanishka and
Huvishka. This combined with the radio carbon dates implies a fairly short occupation in the third century and that the coins represent
circulating currency at the time of Kanishka III - Shaka.
Rydh (1959) Rang Mahal: The Swedish Archaeological Expedition to India 1952-1954, CWK Gleerup Publishers Ltd
Rydh (1953) Antiquity 27: 169-70 [to check]
The majority of coins (207) published as photographs are heavily corroded and it is hard to establish what they are. Of those
which can be identified 2 Wima Kadphises, 2 Soter Megas, 7 Kanishka (plus 2 drachm and 1 hemidrachm), 2 Huvishka (plus 3 possible imitations)
9 Vasudeva (and 9 imitations), 2 Kanishka II, and 4 coins featuring fire altars.
Reh 25.9N 80.6E
Only briefly surveyed but also of course the site of the Reh pillar.
Sharma D P 'Some New Finds in Fatehpur District Uttar Pradesh' Puratattva 11 1979-80: 65-67
Rohira 30.5N, 76E
36 km from Ludhiana, 12 km from Maler Kotla. The site gives a typical example of the problems with assigning periods rather than giving
information about the strata in the remark 'one coin of Indo-Parthian king Gondophares (1st cent. AD) and a few late Kushan coins which were
collected from the surface belonged to this level'.
Sharma, GB & Kumar M 'Excavations at Rohira' Puratattva No.12 1980-81: 125-127
Probably the most famous site in the region, it is the source of so many of the coin moulds. The outstanding question remains is it a Kushan
or a Yaudheya city, or both. Kesarwani & Vashist (?) claim to have found an official Kushan inscription but without image or transliteration this
IAR 1968-69: 9
IAR 1962-63: 17
Kesarwani, A & Vashist, S K 'Buddhist Stupas in Haryan: New Evidence' Puratattva 33: 87-93
Rupar 30N, 76.5E
Coins -> Copper -> Antialicadas
Clay mould of Apollodotus II
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Audumburas
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Kunindas
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Taxila & Mathura Kings
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan (a hoard of 600+ Vasudeva was also found)
Coins -> Mihiragula
Coins -> Gold -> Chandragupta -> Kumardevi type (only coin pictured)
Coins -> Mughal
Dhavalikar, 1999: 193
Nauriyal, K C (1990) 'The Northern Black Polished and other Associated Wares from Ropar' Puratattva 1990-91, 21: 87-90
Sharma, Y D (?) 'Past Patterns in Living as Unfolded by Excavations at Rupar' Lalit Kala 1-2: 121-9
Sahet Mahet See Sravasti
This is the site of several of the most famous Gandharan sculptures. At mound C excavated by Stein 'Bronze coins of the late Kushan kings
were found on the surface'. Other reports indicated coins from Azes to the 'little Kushans' Spooner's excavation yielded a Soter Megas,
Varahran II silver, and three other Kushan (Wima or Kanishka) as well as 63 coins claimed to be illegible. Peshawar museum has a Kujula of
Hermaues type, 1 Vima, 2 Kanishka (1 quarter), 1 Huvishka, 3 Vasudeva (plus 1 imitation), a Kanishka III apparently from Spooner's excavations.
ASIAR 1906-7: 102-18
ASIAR 1909-10: 46-62
Stein ASIAR 1911-12: 95-119 [An Azes, two or three Vasudeva, possibly a Kipunadha or post-Kushan coin]
Cunningham 1875 ASI Report 1872-3 vol.V
Tissot, F 'The site of Sahri-Bahlol in Gandhara' SAA 1983 vol.2: 567-628
Tissot, F 'The site of Sahri-Bahlol' SAA 1987 pt.2: 737-763
Sanchi 23.47N 77.73E
The famous site of Sanchi has yielded an enormous number of private donations. More than any other archaeological site in Ancient India.
Two of these (BGK227, 231) are dated in the reign of Vasishka.
Sanghol 30.8N, 76.4E
Sanghol has yielded a full sequence of coins, many pictured but misdescribed in the hard to acquire volume on the coins and seals. The
earliest Kushan coins are Soter Megas (2), which are preceded by Gondophares and Indo-Parthians. Then three Wima all of the type that have
a chunky appearance to the king. Kanishka coins include Buddha and Helios types issued by the main mint but also a number of quarters usually
associated with a different mint site. Three Huvishka's of Mao/Miiro types from the main mint shortly after the reduction in weight, and
coins of Vasudeva, Kanishka II, through to Kanishka III, and at least Vasudeva II. There is a hoard of Kota coins then some finds of the
Guptas (Sharma, 1986).
Kuninda Coin Moulds
Kushan coins from at least Vima Kadphises to Vasudeva
Indo Parthian coins
A hoard of 178 Kota coins
IAR 1989-90: 88-94
IAR 1988-89: 69-75
IAR 1987-88: 95-99
IAR 1986-87: 69-71
IAR 1985-86: 67-69
Margabandhu, C & Gaur G S 'Sanghol Excavations 1987: Some New Evidences' Puratattva 1986-87, 17: 1-4
Margabandhu, C & Gaur G S 'Some Fresh Evidence from Sanghol Excavations: 1986' Puratattva 1985-86, 16: 73-78
Sharma, G B (1986) Coins, Seals and Sealings from Sanghol, Chandigarh [to check]
Pokharia, AK & Saraswat AK 'Wood Charcoal Remains from ancient Sanghol, Punjab (c.100-300AD)' Praghadara No.10 1999-2000: 149-
Gupta, 1985 Kushan Sculptures from Sanghol
IAR 1971-72: 39-40
IAR 1970-71: 30-31
IAR 1969-70: 31
IAR 1968-69: 25-26
IAR 1962-63: 17 [Kushan and Huna coins reported]
Sankara Aligarh District
IAR 1960-61: 32-33 ['pottery, terracottas and other antiquities assignable to the Sunga-Kushan period.']
Sankisa 27.3N, 79.3E
Some copper coins (including square uninscribed copper)
IAR 1996-97: 139-142
IAR 1995-96: 89-97
Mani, B R (1995) 'Excavations at Sankisa' Puratattva 1995-96, 26: 43-47
Though no coins appear to have been recovered from Sarnath the site has yielded an astonishing number of inscriptions, including
some dated in the reign of Kanishka.
ASIAR 1904-5: 59-104
ASIAR 1906-7: 68-101
ASIAR 1907-8: 44-109
ASIAR 1914-15: 97-131
Shahr-i Banu 36.83N, 67.67E
A large rectangular fortress at which Kushan coins were found.
Ball, 1982: No.1034
Kushan coins are reported from the site, the few in Peshawar museum seem to be Wima, Kanishka, and Huvishka.
ASIAR 1908-9: 38-59
ASIAR 1910-11: 25-33
Shiwaki 34.43N, 69.28E
As part of a stupa deposit a steatite vase with kharoshti incription, some gold Kushan coins and a single coin of
Some late Kushan coins were found in one of the Cells
Rahman, A (2001)
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan 1
Coins -> Copper -> Indo-Greek 2
IAR 1980-81: 49-51
Two Kushan coins were found, one of Huvishka and one of Kanishka. The majority of other coins were Puri-Kushan
Gupta, 1953: 30
Ancient India 5: 97
Siswania 26.8N, 82.8E
Silver & copper PMC coins. Coins of Ayodhya, including Dhanadeva, Satyamitra, Aryamitra, Dhanadata have been found by Mani. And Kushan coins.
These are assigned to periods I, II, and III and they appear to come from successive strata but as no detailed stratigraphic information is given
it is impossible to tell. Mani has identified the site with a Kushan monastic foundation '... some Buddhist monastic establishments came up possibly
later during the Kushan period which was called Devarama or Devaputrarama (the monastery constructed by Devaputra, ie Kushan king), as suggested
by the present name of the village as Deoraon' (2003: 100). The site was also excavated in 1944 by Duryavati Tripathi and C Mani who found 'nearly
two thousand ancient coins comprising punch marked, uninscribed copper cast, local and Ayodhya varieties, Indo-Greek, and Kushan issues' (1991:43).
Mani, B R (2003) 'Excavations at Siswania (District Basti, UP): 1995-1997' Puratattva 2003-4, 34: 100-5
Mani, B R (1997) 'Recent Archaeological Investigations in Trans-Gaghra Plains and Identification of some City sites of Kosala' Puratattva 27: 10-18
Mani, B R (1991) 'Identification of Setavya, the ancient city of Kosala with Siswania and its Terracotta Art' Puratattva No.21: 43-49
IAR 1996-97: 118-26 (report of 50 silver and coppers, inc. PMC, uninscribed copper, and Ayodhya)
IAR 1995-96: 83-86
IAR 1974-75: 46-48 [Kushan and Ayodhya coins]
IAR 1961-62: 56 [Ayodhya, Panchala, and Kushan coins inc. a coin of Hathadeva reported]
IAR 1971-72: 47-48
IAR 1970-71: 39-40
IAR 1969-70: 42
IAR 1968-69: 40-41
Sravasti (27.9N 82.1E)
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Kanishka -> Tetradrachm -> 2
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Vima Kadphises -> Tetradrachm -> 1
Coins -> Silver -> 6
Coins -> Copper -> 15+
Several large scale digs have been undertaken, and a much disputed identification made between the two sites of Sahet and Mahet
and the ancient settlement of
Sravasti. An inscription of Bala has been recovered, several seaings, and a handful of coins in copper; PMC, Panchala/Ahichchattra,
Aryamitra, Agnimitra, Kanishka, Indo-Sasanian, Islamic.
Chattopadhyay, 1967: 236
ASIAR 1907-8: 81-131
ASIAR 1908-9: 33
ASIAR 1910-11: 1-25
IAR 2001-02: 260-87
IAR 2000-01: 140-52
IAR 1998-99: 207-213
IAR 1997-98: 186-197
Takakhiro T, Taizo Y, Fumitaka Y, Akinori U 'The Ancient City of Sravasti: Its Significance on the Urbanisation of North India' Puratattva 30,
Aboshi & Sonand, 1997
IAR 2002-03: 297-315 (several coins, including Kanishka tetradrachm pictured)
Sringaverapura 25.5N, 81.5E
A wide variety of coins have been found at Sringaverapura but no information about the stratigraphy is availble. The only photograph is a
gold coin of the Kushan king Vasudeva II.
IAR 1984-85: 85-86 (Kushan to Gupta period coins)
IAR 1983-84: 84-85
IAR 1982-83: 91-92 (Gold Vasudeva II coin pictured)
IAR 1981-82: 66-67 (A hoard of 200 coins, no details given)
IAR 1980-81: 66-68
IAR 1979-80: 74
IAR 1978-79: 57-59
IAR 1977-78: 54-56 (Silver PMC, Uninscribed Copper, Wima Kadphises, Ayodhya, Lanky bull of Kausambi, hoard of 13 Gahadwalia Silver - no images)
Lal, BB & Dikshit K N 'Sringaverapura: A Key-site for the Protohistory and early History of the Central Ganga Valley' Puratattava 10 1978
- 1979: 1-7 [Essentially the IAR report of the same year in slightly more detail]
Sui Vihar 22km south of Bahawalpur
A Kushan period stupa notable for the discovery of an inscription in the reign of Kanishka I. Excavations have yielded small numbers of coins.
Masih, F (2014) 'Sui Vehar: a Forgotten Buddhist Establishment. Punjab' Gandharan Studies Vol.8: 1-18 [24 coins found, 4 imaged and attributed]
Sunet 30.8N, 75.8E
A very large number of coins are reported to have been found, described as late Kushan, or Kota. Also 30,000 Yaudheya coin moulds of late
Yaudheya coins are reported and some coin moulds of Vasudeva.
IAR 1983-84: 67-70
Sudheran Jo Dhado location not clear, Sind, on Fulaili and Guni branches of Indus
Bhandarkar found 'nearly thirty' coins near the stupa. Of a small number could be identified. One indo-parthian recorded as Sanabres,
two Kushan (probably Kanishka), a Rudrasena II, and three Arab coins.
Cousens, M (1925) Antiquities of Sind, Archaeological Survey of Indian Vol. XLVI Imperial Series
ARASI 1914-15: 90-96
Surkh Kotal 36.03N, 68.55E
That Surkh Kotal was a major site of direct importance to the Kushan dynasty is beyond doubt. It is the site of a bagolago, a dynastic
shrine associated with the period from Wima Kadphises to Huvishka.
Ball, 1982: no.1123
According to Chakrabarti (1998: 175) 'Archaeologically Taxila is the most extensively excavated city site of the subcontinent'.
A substantial number of Kushan coins have been found at the site along with preceding and following dynasties. Most of these are
not published by Marshall, but Khan has recently begun to publish all the coins associated with the site.
Toprak-Kala 41.9N, 60.8E
The site has yielded 104 Khorezmian coins described by Tolstov (1968). It has also yielded 22 Kushan coins. 4 Wima Kadphies, 3 Kanishka,
3 Huvishka, 6 Vasudeva (rest unidentified). Except Vima they are mostly counter-marked with an 'S'. 2 Vasudeva's and 1 Huvishka were overstruck
by Khorezmian designs. [Ideally need images, but at least the 3 Vimas and Huvishka coins]
Mughal, 1967 'Excavations at Tulumba' PA 4: 11-152
Vaisali 25.99N, 85.1E
Located northwest of Patna the site of Vaisali has yielded a Wima Kadphises coin counter-marked with an 'S'. Usually coins with
a counter-mark are Kanishka or Huvishka, rather than Wima. But probably more important such coins are found in central Asia where
the tamgha was a mark employed north of the Kushan Empire. Other coins recovered include punch-marked coins, cast coins featuring
an elephant before a triangular standard (commonly found in association with Kushan coins throughout the Gangetic valley) and coins
of Kanishka, Huvishka, and Vasudeva (from excavations between 1958 and 62).
ASIAR 1913-14: 181
IAR 1959-60: 15-16
IAR 1960-61: 6
Deva & Mishra, 1961
Virabhadra Debra Dun district UP
The following description 'obverse a king (diademed) standing with right hand over an altar, left hand out of flan, trident above altar, and
on the reverse, two armed Shiva standing, holding noose (?) in right hand and trident (?) in left hand, behind him bull standing left, and
Brahmi letter ma in the field. This example belongs to the Kushan copper coinage circa first-second century AD' illustrates some of the
problems of identifying the coins found..
IAR 73-74: 28-30
IAR 63-64: 45
Kushan coins found in small numbers with large numbers of Puri-Kushan
Gupta, 1953: 30
*Ancient India 5: 97
Wazirabad 35.98N, 68.66E
A site excavated by the ASI and Afghan Institute of Archaeology from which Kushan coins have been recovered.
Ball, 1982: No.1232