Coin Finds


Archaeological Sites yielding Kushan Coins

It is common practice in Indian archaeology to refer to any site or layer of a site as 'Kushan' if it features a combination of particular terracotta figurines, bricks, red polished ware, and ring wells. This unfortunately has a number of obvious problems. These features cover a broader chronological period than the Kushan Empire (in older material they are sometimes referred to as Sunga-Kushan). They are also cultural and not political markers, so they include sites beyond the Empires borders in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The approach taken here is to list those sites which yield a political marker, thus it fails to include sites inside the Empire not yielding coins, as well as marking those outside which do.
Agiabir 25.2N, 82.6E

Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> 56+
Correct identification of the coins is hard. Some are square some round, at least one of those featured (Tripathi 2006) shows Miiro on the reverse and is Kushan. With weights and photographs of both sides it is possible that more could be identified even without cleaning.
IAR 1999-00: 183-186
IAR 1998-99: 193-197
Singh, P & Singh, AK (1998) 'Agiabir 1999: A Preliminary Report' Puratattva 29, 1998-99: 117-20
Tripathi & Upadhyay P (2006) 'Further Excavations at Agiabir (2005-6)' Puratattva 37: 121- [Images of one side of 17 coins]
Singh, P & Singh, AK (2004) The Archaeology of Middle Ganga Plain: New Perspectives (Excavations at Agiabir), Aryan Books International [Images of one side of 32 coins]

Ahichchhatra (28.37N 79.13E) Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh

Coins of the Kushans are reported, also inscriptions of the time of Kanishka and Huvishka are known to originate here.
IAR 1964-65: 39-42 [Achyuta coins]
IAR 1963-64: 43-45 [Copper Kushan, Panchala, and Achyuta]

Ambaran 32.9N, 74.8E

Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> 2 (+6 Soter Megas/Kanishka/Huvishka)
Coins -> Copper -> 1
Coins -> Copper -> Toramana -> 1
IAR 2000-01: 47-68
IAR 1999-00: 52-63
IAR 1999-20: 230
Mani, B R (2004) 'Excavations at Ambaran and Akhnur Terracottas' in Buddhism and Gandharan Art ed. Sharma RC & Ghosal, P
IAR 1973-74: 14
Mani, B R (2000) 'Excavations at Ambaran, Jammu & Kashmir, India, 1999-2000 and dating of the Akhnur Buddhist Terracotta Heads' CIAA 12:3-10
Mani, B R (2001) 'Excavations at Ambaran 1999-2000 and dating of the Akhnur Buddhist Terracotta Heads' Pragadhara No.11 2000-2001
Mani, B R (2001) 'New Finds at Akhnur, Jammu & Kashmir, India' CIAA 13:24-25
Fabri, C (1939) 'Buddhist Baroque in Kashmir' Asia
Fabri, C (1951) 'Buddhist Masterpieces' Kashmir
Fabri, C (1955) 'Akhnur Terracottas' Marg Vol.VIII No.2: 53-64

Amul Lebap Region, Turkmenistan

Coins of 'Vasudeva and his successors' have been reported from Amul, and similar Vasudeva or later coins from several other sites in the Lebap region. If these are genuine Vasudeva issues or Kushano-Sasanian imitations is not clear.
Burkhanov, 2007

Akra Bannu District, Pakistan

Cribb (2002) has summarized 110 coins associated with the site. There is a single bent bar and one cast copper, eleven Bactrian/Indo-Greek, 2 Maues, 1 Azillises, 25 Azes (suspected to be a hoard), 1 Gondophares. The number of actual Kushan coins is fairly small. 2 Kujula or Hermaues types (with 4 imitations), 2 Soter Megas, 1 Wima Kadphises, 1 Kanishka, 2 Huvishka (main mint). The majority of the coins are a hoard group of 45 which is a mixture of Vasudeva imitations and Kushano-Sasanian coins. Post Kushan are 3 Hunas, 3 Hindu Shahi, 3 Ghazvanid, 2 Princely states.
Cribb, 2002

Atranjikhera Etah District

IAR 1960-61: 35 [2 Vasudeva coins reported]

Ayaram (31.5N 75.8E)

Coins of Taxila, Indo-Greeks, Kushan and Kagra Kings reported.
IAR 1969-70: 31

Ayaz III 42N 61.02E

Excavated in 1939. One of a number of Choresmian sites known to have yielded kushan coins.
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Kanishka 2
Tolstov, 1968

Ayodhya26.8N 82.2E

Reports are unclear on whether any coins found were Kushan or if all were Ayodhya coins.
Coins -> Copper -> Ayodhya (Vasudeva mentioned)
Coins -> Copper
IAR 1976-77: 52-3
IAR 1969-70: 40-1 [2 Ayodhya coins found]

Balkh 36.8N 66.9E

Balkh is a major urban site which has been excavated no less than nine times since the end of the nineteenth century. The excavations have not been particularly forthcoming but material from the Greco-Bactrian and the Timurids.
Ball, 1982: No.99

Batesvara Agra District

Again, 'a few copper coins' were found but no information was given about what those coins might be.
IAR 1975-76: 42-43

Bazitkhel 35.2N, 67.8E

A 35m diameter Stupa, in the centre of which Masson found a vase and some copper coins.
Ball, 1982: No.121

Begram 35N 69.2E

The site of Begram, excavated by Masson, produced enormous number of Kushan coins mostly as surface finds.
Ball, 1982: No.122


Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Wima Kadphises 3
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Kanishka 6
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Huvishka 18
Near Allahabad the site of Bhita has yielded a number of seals naming officials and kings from the Kushan period (but not naming Kushan kings). The Survey in 1911 also recorded some information about the stratigraphy though rarely recorded well enough to explore in any detail. Coins of Bahasatimitra, Prashthasriya, and Asvaghosha were found in similar contexts to the Kushan coins.
Chattopadhyay, 1967: 236
ASIAR 1911-12: 62-5

Belvadaga 23N, 85.2E

Some trial digging was carreid out by S C Roy at an area called Itadanr 'the brick field'. As many as five gold Kushan coins have been reported from the area.
Singh, 1973: 132
*Journal of the Bengal-Orissa Research Society V: 230
*Journal of the Bengal-Orissa Research Society V: 230


'Copper coins' and a seal saying 'supakasa'
Babu, B S R (1994) 'Excavations at Bhorgarh' Puratattva 25, 1994-95: 88-93

Bimaran 34.4N 70.4E

Reliquary and coins
Ball, 1982: No.127

Brass 30N, 76E (aprox. Patiala district)

'Copper coins' have been been noted from this site but no further information given. It has also yielded some unpublished Kharoshti inscriptions.
IAR 1996-97: 83-90
IAR 1994-95: 63-64
IAR 1993-94: 90-91
IAR 1991-92: 90-91
IAR 1990-91: 59


Butkara III had a large number of Soter Megas coins
Khan, F (2004) 'Recently excavated sites in Udyana and Gandhara' in Buddhism and Gandharan Art ed. Sharma RC & Ghosal P
Rahim, A 'Butkara III: A Preliminary Report' South Asian Archaeology 1987 vol.2: 693-706 [Area A yielded a Soter Megas and Vasudeva]

Chahar Bagh Afghanistan

A stupa opend by Masson, which yielded 28 'Indo-Saka' coins.
Ball, 1982: No.155

Charsada 34.1N, 71.7E

Ancient Pushkalavati. A source of radio carbon dates associated with Kanishka coins. Ali (2004) records a substantial number of coins in the Peshawar Museum as originating from Charsada including some parcels of Vasudeva II. There are coins from Soter Megas to Kipunadha including a large number of drachms of Kanishka. The later coins are mostly Vasudeva II.
Ali, 2004
Marshall, AR ASI 1902-3: 141-84 [to check]
Wheeler, (1962) Charsada [Reports only a tetradrachm of Menander]
Dani, 'Shaikan-Dheri' Ancient Pakistan 2

Chaqalaq Tepe 36.65N 68.83E

Japanese excavations (by Kyoto University Archaeological Mission) from 1963 to 1967 yielded 573 coins. 19 ranged 16.57-7.96g and on that dubious basis were attributed to Kanishka to Vasudeva. 109 range 7.21 to 2.15g and marked as 'including Vasudeva types'. 5 Silver Sasanian or Arab Sasanian. 374 range 2.95g to 1g attributed as Shapur III and 1 Chinese coin. The stratigraphy as reported implies the site was all post the Kushan period and they clearly have the same difficulty (26) in interpreting. The problem seems to be the typical working in periods rather than strata for reporting.
Ball, 1982: No. 172
Takayasa Higuchi & Shoshin Kumagama, 1970

Chhat 30.6N, 76.8E

About a dozen copper coins, unspecified
IAR 2000-01: 114-15
IAR 1999-00: 127-128

Dasht-i-Nawur 33.72N, 67.72E

The only finds are palaeolithic. However on rocks are carved inscriptions of an official nature.
Ball, 1982: No.265

Dat Nagar 31N, 78E aprox. Shimla district

Coins -> Copper -> ?
IAR 1992-93: 36

Daulatpur Kurukshetra District, Haryana

IAR 1976-77:19 ['a few copper coins' and a seal described as Yaudheya]
IAR 1968-69: 8-9

Dhalewan 30N, 75.6E

Coins -> Copper -> ?
IAR 2001-02: 195-204
IAR 1999-00: 125-7

Dilberjin 37.02N, 68.53E

Large urban site at which Soviet missions from 1969 to 1977 found both inscriptions and a substantial number of coins.
Ball, 1982: 295

Durman Tepe 36.67N, 68.8E

Kushan and Kushano-Sasanian coins found during excavations by a team from Kyoto University from 1963 to 1965
Ball, 1982: No.309

Emshi Tepe 36.7N, 68.78E

Excavated in 1886 by Maitland, by Barger in 1938 and by a Soviet Mission in 1969 and 1970. The site has yielded a large number of coins including Kushan.
Ball, 1982: No.314

Jamal Ghari Mardan

A number of coins associated with this site are recorded in Peshawar Museum, including 2 Huvishka, 2 Kanishka II and some later coins.
Ali, 2004

Ganwaria see Kapilavastu

Azia Dheri, 45km from Mardhan, near Ranighat
Coins of Azes II, and Vima to Vasudeva - no details
Khan, F (2004) 'Recently excavated sites in Udyana and Gandhara' in Buddhism and Gandharan Art ed. Sharma RC & Ghosal P

Harigaon Kathmandu

A single Kanishka tetradrachm (probably Wesho reverse) in very worn condition occurs in a strata with radio carbon dates (which are mis-represented in some parts of the report)
Verardi, 1992

Harsh-ka-Tila 30N, 76.8E

A few copper coins of the Kushan period have been recovered but no details provided
IAR 1988-89: 21-24
IAR 1987-88: 28-31
Ponde, B M (1988) 'Archaeology of Thanesar: A Brief Report on Excavations at Harsh-ka-Tila' Puratattva 1988-89, 19: 1-5

Hastinapur 29.2N, 78E

Lal's excavation, which consisted of putting one immense trench through the mound turned up 89 coins, some of which (including the ten Kushan) occur in a stratified context. Lal records the strata in some cases, for 6 Vasudeva and 4 Kanishka II (one coin features the delta mark under the arm). They were found in close proximity and may have been a hoard. If Lal's assumptions about the continuity of strata are correct, finds of PMC are first, overlayed by cast coins, all of which are overlaid by the structural work, and finds of Mathuran and PMC. These are overlaid by Yaudheya and Mathuran, which are overlaid by layers containing the Kushan find, which are in turn overlaid by layers containing Yaudheya.
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Siva Imitations 6
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Ardoxsho Imitations 4 (or possibly late Kushan, no pictures provided)
Chattopadhyay, 1967: 235
Ancient India 54, Nos.10&11: 5-151 (check)
Lal, B B Excavations at Hastinapur and other Explorations 1950-52 (New light on the Dark Age between the end of the Harappan Culture and the early Historic Period) Ancient India No.10&11 1954&55

Hulashkhera 26.7N, 80.9E

Various coins have been reported from the site including PMC, 'silver coins of the Gupta kings' as well as coppers of the Kushan period.
IAR 1985-86: 82
IAR 1983-84: 88-89
IAR 1982-83: 98-99
IAR 1981-82: 71-72
IAR 1980-81: 71
IAR 1979-80: 77
IAR 1978-79: 74-75 (silver PMC, Vima, Kanishka, and Huvishka mentioned)

Indor Khera28.25N, 78.21E
Menon & Varma (2010); of 46 copper coins found 3 identified as Kushan (including one Huvishka and one Vima) while one is identified as a copper PMC.
Jhusi25.4N, 81.9E

Coins -> Copper -> ?
IAR 2001-02: 236-7
IAR 1998-99: 161
IAR 1997-98: 164-170

Jodhpura Jaipur district, Rajasthan

IAR 1972-73: 29-30 [An unspecified copper coin]

Kalakan 32.8N, 74.8E

Coins -> Copper ?
IAR 1981-82:18

Kandahar 31.62N, 65.65E

Ball, 1982: No.522

Kanispur 34.2N, 74.4E

This is one of three sites in Kashmir (the others being Ushkur and Zukur) associated with the record in the Rajatiringi that cities were founded by Kushan kings. The site has yielded at least one Kushan copper coin.
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan 1
IAR 1998-99: 30-49 [A copper coin]
IAR 1971-72: 25-26
Mani, B R 'Excavations at Kanispur 1998-99' Praghadara No.10 1999-2000


Known as Piprahwa or Ganwaria in earlier reports. The information is hard to interpret. As well as coins there is a royal seal and the seals that read 'Om Devaputra Vihare Kapilavastu Bhikshu Saghosa'. Yet there are clearly Ayodhya coins from the same site. No information on the strata of finds is available.
IAR 1976-77: 50-52 [Seal of Wima Kadphises, Hoard of PMC and 37 Kushan copper, 3 unclear 16g tetra depicted]
IAR 1975-76: 47-50
IAR 1973-74: 39-41 [Silver PMC]
IAR 1971-72: 45
IAR 1972-73: 33 [devaputra vihare seals, PMC, Kushan, Ayodhya coins reported]
Srivastava, K M 'A note on the recent Excavations at Piprahwa Distt. Basti (UP)' Puratattva 6 1972-73: 51
Srivastava, 1986

Kashmir Smast 34.3N 72.2E

A religious site in NW Pakistan which has been extensively investigated since 2000. It is probably the earliest Siva temple known from the region. The majority of coins attributed to the site do not come from excavations but have been identified in private collections or trade. There are very few pre-Kushan coins reported (a Menander, an Azes, two with taurine and sacred hill).
The Kushan coins include no Kujula (but two imitations). Five Wima Takto, four featuring standing figure with triden and goddess with cornucopia. Four Kanishka drachms with Kharoshti control marks. Five Huvishka (some from the Gandhari mint). Six gold Vasudeva from the middle phase of the main mint. Seven copper Vasudeva. Twenty one Vasudeva imitations and seven imitations of the Kanishka II. A small number of post-Kanishka III coins.
Contemporary to the late Kushan coins are seven Kota coins. Post-Kushan coins include Kidarite issues in Kushan style and in the name of Varhran, post-Kushan imitations featuring a bowman, Kushano-Sasanian and Sasanian coins of Peroz I, Hormizd, and Shaputr II. There are also a very large number of Kidarite/Alchon/Hunnish coins. Probably the most interesting aspect of Kashmir Smast is he number of coins which seem to be unique types, known only from this site.
Khan, 2008

Kashipur 29.2N 79E

IAR 1965-66: 53-54 ['copper coins']
IAR 1960-61: 67 [A group of gold coins associated with the site]

Khairadih 26.2N, 83.3E

A copper furnace and aprox. 65 coins were taken to imply the presence of metal working at this site. At least 2 uninscribed copper, a silver and a copper PMC and a 'Kanishka with the legend in Kharoshti script' (what the excavator meant is unclear, perhaps a Wima Kadphises coin) have been found.
IAR 96-97: 109-112
IAR 85-86: 75-77
IAR 83-84: 87
IAR 82-83: 92-94
IAR 81-82: 67-70
IAR 80-81: 69-70

Khalatse 34.3N 76.9E

No coins have been found nead the village of Khalatse but a number of inscriptions engraved on rocks have been found at the site. One of these (Insc. 362) reads 'Anno 187 (or 184) , (during the reign) of the Great King Uvima Kavthisa' according to Konow, but is more likely to have the date 287 (Cribb, 1999). Whether the inscription is the private individual moving along the trade route, or official is important to tell, but private seems more likely.

Khokhrakot 29.3N, 75.1E

Rohtak has been described as a mint town of the Yaudheya, principally because sites in the vicinity have yielded an enourmous number of terracotta moulds of later Yaudheya coins, as well as some Kushan. These moulds remain problematic and a convinving interpretation has eluded scholars.
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan ?
IAR 1986-87: 34-36

Khuradhan Rajasthan

Coins -> Copper -> Kushan 1
IAR 1987-88: 133

Khurd Kabul Rajasthan

two 'indo-saka' coins
Ball, 1982: No.574

Kopia 26.9N, 83.1E

Reports indicate that most coins were surface finds or recovered from local villagers. The strata at the site are claimed to be disturbed.
Coins -> Copper 9
Coins -> Silver -> PMC 1
Coins -> Copper -> Uninscribed 3
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan 6 (1 Wima of A1 D 4O type, 1 Kanishka Tetradachm, 4 Huvishkas of 16g with 2 Mioro and 1 Athso - main mint)
Kanungo, A K (2005) 'Excavations at Kopia 2006: A Preliminary Report' Puratattva 36:
Kanungo, A K (2004) 'Excavations at Kopia 2005: A Preliminary Report' Puratattva 35: 126-134
Kanungo, A K (2004) 'Excavation at Kopia: A Preliminary Report' Puratattva 34: 116-123 [Photographs of one side of the Kushans]

Kosam 25.34N, 81.39E

A supposed Kushan palace is commonly referred to at this site.
IAR 1958-59: 33-35
IAR 1959-60: 46
Soundara Rajan K V 'The use of Arch in the Kushan Palace at Kausambi' Puratattva 11 1979-80: 96-99

Kumrahahr See Patna
Manda Akhnoor

IAR 1976-77: 19-20 ['a few copper coins']


Coins -> Copper -> ? (at least six are pictured, one a later Yaudheya coin)
IAR 2001-02: 205-15

Mohenjo Daro

First examined by Banerji in 1921-2 and then later re-examined by Marshall from 1922 to 7 the Mohenjo Daro site is justly famous for its Indus Civilization material but it is often forgotten that much of the structures were Kushan. In particular there are two areas, the monastery and stupa, which yielded 1967 and 2170 coins respectively. Marshall pictures about 30, but these are not a representative sample. One coin described as Indo-Greek sounds like it might be a bull and horseman type, a very small number (9) are probably Kushano-Sassanian or Shapur II coins. Some of the pictured are clearly Vasudeva, and at least one is a Kanishka II. Some 'square cast' coins are mentioned. The vast majority described as 'rectangular, or oblong, coins bearing a nimbate figure, the cross, trident, series of pellets etc on one side or the other but without legend' probably represent the period from Kanishka II to post-Kipunadha. If it were possible to examine all of them they would probably provide a complete sequence of the late Kushan and post-Kushan.
Marshall, J (1973) 'Mohenjodaro and the Indus Valley Civilization, Indological Book House 1973 (reprint of 1931 volume) 3 volumes
Banerji, R D (1984) Mohenjodaro and a Forgotten Report, Prithivi Prakashan, 1984 [A reproduction of Banerji's original notes]

Moradhwaj 29.7N, 78.5E

Though the site is described as having a Sunga period and no Kushan levels there are red ware and stucco head which would normally be assigned to those periods and a 'gold coin belonging to late Kushan ruler' which is unpictured.
Nautiyal, K P & Khanduri, B M 'Excavations at Moradwaj - A Note' Puratattva 10: 86-87

Masaon (aprox. 26N 84E Ghazipur district, UP

IAR 1967-68: 46-47 [Kushan copper coins]
IAR 1965-66: 49-52 ['copper coins']
IAR 1964-65: 42

Mathura 27.5N, 77.2E

Early excavations at Mathura concentrated on the recovery of sculpture and inscriptions, of which there are an enormous number. No site location has yielded as many dated inscriptions as Mathura, most of them relating to the period from Kanishka I to Vasishka.
IAR 1976-77: 54-6
IAR 1975-76: 53-6
IAR 1974-75: 48-50 [Kushan copper coins mentioned]
IAR 1973-74: 31-33 [Two coins imatitive of Kidarites types]
Joshi, MC & Sinha, AL 'Chronology of Mathura - An Assessment' Puratattva 10: 39-44 [Some wildly inaccurate radiocarbon resulting from their association with period rather than strata]

Muhammad Nagar 29.5N, 78.5E

Several coins are found at the site and some images have been published (though not weights). They are in poor condition and descirbed as PMC and Kushan but it appears some may be PMC and the Ardoxsho may be a later coin of the Kanishka II to III period.
Coins -> Copper -> PMC
Coins -> Copper -> ? (at least six are pictured, one a later Yaudheya coin)
IAR 1997-98: 40-54

Nagar 31.1N 75.8E

IAR 1976-77: 42 [Coins and a seal reading 'Sri Maha-senapati Ramguptasya']

Naurangabad24.8N, 75.1E

Coins -> Copper -> ?
Coins -> Copper -> Yaudheya -> ?
IAR 2001-02:

Noh Bharatpur, Rajasthan

Copper coins but few details supplied
IAR 1971-72: 41-42
IAR 1970-71: 31-32
IAR 1968-69: 26 [copper cast coins]
IAR 1963-64: 28-29
IAR 1966-67: 30-31
IAR 1965-66: 38
IAR 1964-65: 34-35 [cast copper coins]
IAR 1963-64: 28 [Mitra rulers of Mathura]

Panda Samastipur District, Bihar (25.66N, 85.8E)

IAR 2002-03:47-48 'A Kushan Coin'


Patna is one of the few sites there are a number of literary references for. The Brikatkalpavritti apparently refers to a Murunda King of Patna, an epithet which seems to designate the Kushans in Puranic accounts. Digs at Kumrahahr have been undertaken twice in the twentieth century. Though neither record is particularly good it is clear from Spooner's originaly dig that Kushan coins were found in in strata that overlay coins of Chandragupta. It is reported (Singh, 1973) that gold coins were also found, apparently a Vasudeva and Kanishka II.
Coins from the later dig at Kumrahahr are PMC Silver (20), PMC Silver coated (8), PMC Copper (32), Cast Copper (72), Lankey Bull of Kosam (6), Panchala - Bhumimitra (1), Ayodhya (1) Kanishka (2, perhaps 3), Huvishka (3), Kushan Imitation 1, Chandragupta II (19), Mughal (6).
There are a group of 'peaked cap' terracotta heads which have been associated with the Kushans but they actually don't resemble Kushan figures and in any case the strata show fairly clearly that the Kushan coins are part of the general circulating currency of the middle Ganges and were deposited centuries after they were issued.
Singh, 1973: 127
IAR 2-63: 5-6 [site of Rajgir]
Altekar, AS & Mishra, V Report on Kumrahar Excavations 1951-55, KP Jayaswal Research Institute, 1959

Purana Qila Delhi

IAR 1970-71: 9-11 [A few yaudheya and Kushan and 1 gold plated Gupta imitation reported]
IAR 1969-70: 4 [Coins of Mathura kings, Kushans and Yaudheya reported. Sample are pictured, appear to be a Vasudeva and a mis-identified Kota coin]
IAR 54-55: 13-14 [to check]

Qal'a-i Haji 34.42N, 70.4E

A single Wima Kadphises coin was found in a stupa at this site.
Ball, 1982: No.847

Qal'a-i Shahi 34.63N, 70.4E

At the site of a stupa and monastery, with Kushan, Hindu Shahi and Islamic coins found.
Ball, 1982: No.880

Qunduz 34.72N, 70.85E

A number of preliminary and unpublished surveys have been undertaken around Qunduz.
Ball, 1982: 930 & 931

Raja Karna Ka Qila Karnal dist. Haryana

IAR 1970-71: 15-16 ['copper coins']

Rajghat Varanasi district

IAR 1964-65: 43-44 [2 Kushan coins]
IAR 1963-64: 58-59 [Gold coins Chandragupta, Kumaragupta, Skandagupta]
IAR 1962-63: 41
IAR 1961-62: 57
IAR 1960-61: 39 [Cast Copper Coins]

Rangmahal 29.2N 73.6E

The strata are properly recorded in the publication of this site, and the coins are illustrated and three potentially useful radiocarbon dates are available. The site appears to have been in use for only a short time. It has yielded 3 Kanishka, 4 Huvishka (all main mint), 4 Vasudeva, 6 Kanishka II, a Vasishka, at least one Kanishka III, some post Kanishka III, Acyuta, and Acyuta/Kushan style coins. (41 coins in total, though most are hard to identify in an uncleaned condition).
The lowest strata of Trench I contains coins of Kanishka III and the latest strate yielding coins yield punch mark coins, Kanishka and Huvishka. This combined with the radio carbon dates implies a fairly short occupation in the third century and that the coins represent circulating currency at the time of Kanishka III - Shaka.
Rydh (1959) Rang Mahal: The Swedish Archaeological Expedition to India 1952-1954, CWK Gleerup Publishers Ltd
Rydh (1953) Antiquity 27: 169-70 [to check]

Ranighat Pakistan

The majority of coins (207) published as photographs are heavily corroded and it is hard to establish what they are. Of those which can be identified 2 Wima Kadphises, 2 Soter Megas, 7 Kanishka (plus 2 drachm and 1 hemidrachm), 2 Huvishka (plus 3 possible imitations) 9 Vasudeva (and 9 imitations), 2 Kanishka II, and 4 coins featuring fire altars.
Nishikawa, 1994

Reh 25.9N 80.6E

Only briefly surveyed but also of course the site of the Reh pillar.
Sharma D P 'Some New Finds in Fatehpur District Uttar Pradesh' Puratattva 11 1979-80: 65-67

Rohira 30.5N, 76E

36 km from Ludhiana, 12 km from Maler Kotla. The site gives a typical example of the problems with assigning periods rather than giving information about the strata in the remark 'one coin of Indo-Parthian king Gondophares (1st cent. AD) and a few late Kushan coins which were collected from the surface belonged to this level'.
Sharma, GB & Kumar M 'Excavations at Rohira' Puratattva No.12 1980-81: 125-127


Probably the most famous site in the region, it is the source of so many of the coin moulds. The outstanding question remains is it a Kushan or a Yaudheya city, or both. Kesarwani & Vashist (?) claim to have found an official Kushan inscription but without image or transliteration this remains doubtful.
IAR 1968-69: 9
IAR 1962-63: 17
Kesarwani, A & Vashist, S K 'Buddhist Stupas in Haryan: New Evidence' Puratattva 33: 87-93

Rupar 30N, 76.5E

Coins -> Copper -> Antialicadas
Clay mould of Apollodotus II
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Audumburas
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Kunindas
Coins -> Copper -> Tribal Coins -> Taxila & Mathura Kings
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan (a hoard of 600+ Vasudeva was also found)
Coins -> Mihiragula
Coins -> Gold -> Chandragupta -> Kumardevi type (only coin pictured)
Coins -> Mughal
Dhavalikar, 1999: 193
Nauriyal, K C (1990) 'The Northern Black Polished and other Associated Wares from Ropar' Puratattva 1990-91, 21: 87-90
Sharma, Y D (?) 'Past Patterns in Living as Unfolded by Excavations at Rupar' Lalit Kala 1-2: 121-9

Sahet Mahet See Sravasti
Sahri-Bahlol Gandhara

This is the site of several of the most famous Gandharan sculptures. At mound C excavated by Stein 'Bronze coins of the late Kushan kings were found on the surface'. Other reports indicated coins from Azes to the 'little Kushans' Spooner's excavation yielded a Soter Megas, Varahran II silver, and three other Kushan (Wima or Kanishka) as well as 63 coins claimed to be illegible. Peshawar museum has a Kujula of Hermaues type, 1 Vima, 2 Kanishka (1 quarter), 1 Huvishka, 3 Vasudeva (plus 1 imitation), a Kanishka III apparently from Spooner's excavations.
ASIAR 1906-7: 102-18
ASIAR 1909-10: 46-62
Stein ASIAR 1911-12: 95-119 [An Azes, two or three Vasudeva, possibly a Kipunadha or post-Kushan coin]
Cunningham 1875 ASI Report 1872-3 vol.V
Tissot, F 'The site of Sahri-Bahlol in Gandhara' SAA 1983 vol.2: 567-628
Tissot, F 'The site of Sahri-Bahlol' SAA 1987 pt.2: 737-763
Ali, 2004

Sanchi 23.47N 77.73E

The famous site of Sanchi has yielded an enormous number of private donations. More than any other archaeological site in Ancient India. Two of these (BGK227, 231) are dated in the reign of Vasishka.

Sanghol 30.8N, 76.4E

Sanghol has yielded a full sequence of coins, many pictured but misdescribed in the hard to acquire volume on the coins and seals. The earliest Kushan coins are Soter Megas (2), which are preceded by Gondophares and Indo-Parthians. Then three Wima all of the type that have a chunky appearance to the king. Kanishka coins include Buddha and Helios types issued by the main mint but also a number of quarters usually associated with a different mint site. Three Huvishka's of Mao/Miiro types from the main mint shortly after the reduction in weight, and coins of Vasudeva, Kanishka II, through to Kanishka III, and at least Vasudeva II. There is a hoard of Kota coins then some finds of the Guptas (Sharma, 1986).
Kuninda Coin Moulds
Kushan coins from at least Vima Kadphises to Vasudeva
Indo Parthian coins
A hoard of 178 Kota coins
IAR 1989-90: 88-94
IAR 1988-89: 69-75
IAR 1987-88: 95-99
IAR 1986-87: 69-71
IAR 1985-86: 67-69
Margabandhu, C & Gaur G S 'Sanghol Excavations 1987: Some New Evidences' Puratattva 1986-87, 17: 1-4
Margabandhu, C & Gaur G S 'Some Fresh Evidence from Sanghol Excavations: 1986' Puratattva 1985-86, 16: 73-78
Sharma, G B (1986) Coins, Seals and Sealings from Sanghol, Chandigarh [to check]
Pokharia, AK & Saraswat AK 'Wood Charcoal Remains from ancient Sanghol, Punjab (c.100-300AD)' Praghadara No.10 1999-2000: 149-
Gupta, 1985 Kushan Sculptures from Sanghol
IAR 1971-72: 39-40
IAR 1970-71: 30-31
IAR 1969-70: 31
IAR 1968-69: 25-26
IAR 1962-63: 17 [Kushan and Huna coins reported]

Sankara Aligarh District

IAR 1960-61: 32-33 ['pottery, terracottas and other antiquities assignable to the Sunga-Kushan period.']
Sankisa 27.3N, 79.3E

Some copper coins (including square uninscribed copper)
IAR 1996-97: 139-142
IAR 1995-96: 89-97
Mani, B R (1995) 'Excavations at Sankisa' Puratattva 1995-96, 26: 43-47


Though no coins appear to have been recovered from Sarnath the site has yielded an astonishing number of inscriptions, including some dated in the reign of Kanishka.
ASIAR 1904-5: 59-104
ASIAR 1906-7: 68-101
ASIAR 1907-8: 44-109
ASIAR 1914-15: 97-131

Shahr-i Banu 36.83N, 67.67E

A large rectangular fortress at which Kushan coins were found.
Ball, 1982: No.1034


Kushan coins are reported from the site, the few in Peshawar museum seem to be Wima, Kanishka, and Huvishka.
ASIAR 1908-9: 38-59
ASIAR 1910-11: 25-33
Ali, 2004

Shiwaki 34.43N, 69.28E

As part of a stupa deposit a steatite vase with kharoshti incription, some gold Kushan coins and a single coin of Trajan.
Ball, 1982


Some late Kushan coins were found in one of the Cells
Rahman, A (2001)

Singh Bhagwapur

Coins -> Copper -> Kushan 1
Coins -> Copper -> Indo-Greek 2
IAR 1980-81: 49-51

Sisupalagarh Orissa

Two Kushan coins were found, one of Huvishka and one of Kanishka. The majority of other coins were Puri-Kushan
Gupta, 1953: 30
Ancient India 5: 97

Siswania 26.8N, 82.8E

Silver & copper PMC coins. Coins of Ayodhya, including Dhanadeva, Satyamitra, Aryamitra, Dhanadata have been found by Mani. And Kushan coins. These are assigned to periods I, II, and III and they appear to come from successive strata but as no detailed stratigraphic information is given it is impossible to tell. Mani has identified the site with a Kushan monastic foundation '... some Buddhist monastic establishments came up possibly later during the Kushan period which was called Devarama or Devaputrarama (the monastery constructed by Devaputra, ie Kushan king), as suggested by the present name of the village as Deoraon' (2003: 100). The site was also excavated in 1944 by Duryavati Tripathi and C Mani who found 'nearly two thousand ancient coins comprising punch marked, uninscribed copper cast, local and Ayodhya varieties, Indo-Greek, and Kushan issues' (1991:43).
Mani, B R (2003) 'Excavations at Siswania (District Basti, UP): 1995-1997' Puratattva 2003-4, 34: 100-5
Mani, B R (1997) 'Recent Archaeological Investigations in Trans-Gaghra Plains and Identification of some City sites of Kosala' Puratattva 27: 10-18
Mani, B R (1991) 'Identification of Setavya, the ancient city of Kosala with Siswania and its Terracotta Art' Puratattva No.21: 43-49
IAR 1996-97: 118-26 (report of 50 silver and coppers, inc. PMC, uninscribed copper, and Ayodhya)
IAR 1995-96: 83-86

Sohaguara Gorakhpur

IAR 1974-75: 46-48 [Kushan and Ayodhya coins]
IAR 1961-62: 56 [Ayodhya, Panchala, and Kushan coins inc. a coin of Hathadeva reported]

Sonkh Mathura

IAR 1971-72: 47-48
IAR 1970-71: 39-40
IAR 1969-70: 42
IAR 1968-69: 40-41

Sravasti (27.9N 82.1E)

Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Kanishka -> Tetradrachm -> 2
Coins -> Copper -> Kushan -> Vima Kadphises -> Tetradrachm -> 1
Coins -> Silver -> 6
Coins -> Copper -> 15+
Several large scale digs have been undertaken, and a much disputed identification made between the two sites of Sahet and Mahet and the ancient settlement of Sravasti. An inscription of Bala has been recovered, several seaings, and a handful of coins in copper; PMC, Panchala/Ahichchattra, Aryamitra, Agnimitra, Kanishka, Indo-Sasanian, Islamic.
Chattopadhyay, 1967: 236
ASIAR 1907-8: 81-131
ASIAR 1908-9: 33
ASIAR 1910-11: 1-25
IAR 2001-02: 260-87
IAR 2000-01: 140-52
IAR 1998-99: 207-213
IAR 1997-98: 186-197
Takakhiro T, Taizo Y, Fumitaka Y, Akinori U 'The Ancient City of Sravasti: Its Significance on the Urbanisation of North India' Puratattva 30, 1999-2000: 74-92
Aboshi & Sonand, 1997
Singh, 1967
IAR 2002-03: 297-315 (several coins, including Kanishka tetradrachm pictured)

Sringaverapura 25.5N, 81.5E

A wide variety of coins have been found at Sringaverapura but no information about the stratigraphy is availble. The only photograph is a gold coin of the Kushan king Vasudeva II.
IAR 1984-85: 85-86 (Kushan to Gupta period coins)
IAR 1983-84: 84-85
IAR 1982-83: 91-92 (Gold Vasudeva II coin pictured)
IAR 1981-82: 66-67 (A hoard of 200 coins, no details given)
IAR 1980-81: 66-68
IAR 1979-80: 74
IAR 1978-79: 57-59
IAR 1977-78: 54-56 (Silver PMC, Uninscribed Copper, Wima Kadphises, Ayodhya, Lanky bull of Kausambi, hoard of 13 Gahadwalia Silver - no images)
Lal, BB & Dikshit K N 'Sringaverapura: A Key-site for the Protohistory and early History of the Central Ganga Valley' Puratattava 10 1978 - 1979: 1-7 [Essentially the IAR report of the same year in slightly more detail]

Sui Vihar 22km south of Bahawalpur

A Kushan period stupa notable for the discovery of an inscription in the reign of Kanishka I. Excavations have yielded small numbers of coins.
Masih, F (2014) 'Sui Vehar: a Forgotten Buddhist Establishment. Punjab' Gandharan Studies Vol.8: 1-18 [24 coins found, 4 imaged and attributed]

Sunet 30.8N, 75.8E

A very large number of coins are reported to have been found, described as late Kushan, or Kota. Also 30,000 Yaudheya coin moulds of late Yaudheya coins are reported and some coin moulds of Vasudeva.
IAR 1983-84: 67-70

Sudheran Jo Dhado location not clear, Sind, on Fulaili and Guni branches of Indus

Bhandarkar found 'nearly thirty' coins near the stupa. Of a small number could be identified. One indo-parthian recorded as Sanabres, two Kushan (probably Kanishka), a Rudrasena II, and three Arab coins.
Cousens, M (1925) Antiquities of Sind, Archaeological Survey of Indian Vol. XLVI Imperial Series
ARASI 1914-15: 90-96

Surkh Kotal 36.03N, 68.55E

That Surkh Kotal was a major site of direct importance to the Kushan dynasty is beyond doubt. It is the site of a bagolago, a dynastic shrine associated with the period from Wima Kadphises to Huvishka.
Ball, 1982: no.1123


According to Chakrabarti (1998: 175) 'Archaeologically Taxila is the most extensively excavated city site of the subcontinent'. A substantial number of Kushan coins have been found at the site along with preceding and following dynasties. Most of these are not published by Marshall, but Khan has recently begun to publish all the coins associated with the site.

Toprak-Kala 41.9N, 60.8E

The site has yielded 104 Khorezmian coins described by Tolstov (1968). It has also yielded 22 Kushan coins. 4 Wima Kadphies, 3 Kanishka, 3 Huvishka, 6 Vasudeva (rest unidentified). Except Vima they are mostly counter-marked with an 'S'. 2 Vasudeva's and 1 Huvishka were overstruck by Khorezmian designs. [Ideally need images, but at least the 3 Vimas and Huvishka coins]
Tolstov, 1968

Tulumba Punjab

Mughal, 1967 'Excavations at Tulumba' PA 4: 11-152

Vaisali 25.99N, 85.1E

Located northwest of Patna the site of Vaisali has yielded a Wima Kadphises coin counter-marked with an 'S'. Usually coins with a counter-mark are Kanishka or Huvishka, rather than Wima. But probably more important such coins are found in central Asia where the tamgha was a mark employed north of the Kushan Empire. Other coins recovered include punch-marked coins, cast coins featuring an elephant before a triangular standard (commonly found in association with Kushan coins throughout the Gangetic valley) and coins of Kanishka, Huvishka, and Vasudeva (from excavations between 1958 and 62).
ASIAR 1913-14: 181
IAR 1958-59
IAR 1959-60: 15-16
IAR 1960-61: 6
Deva & Mishra, 1961
Singh, 1985

Virabhadra Debra Dun district UP

The following description 'obverse a king (diademed) standing with right hand over an altar, left hand out of flan, trident above altar, and on the reverse, two armed Shiva standing, holding noose (?) in right hand and trident (?) in left hand, behind him bull standing left, and Brahmi letter ma in the field. This example belongs to the Kushan copper coinage circa first-second century AD' illustrates some of the problems of identifying the coins found..
IAR 73-74: 28-30
IAR 63-64: 45

Viratgarh Orissa

Kushan coins found in small numbers with large numbers of Puri-Kushan
Gupta, 1953: 30
*Ancient India 5: 97

Wazirabad 35.98N, 68.66E

A site excavated by the ASI and Afghan Institute of Archaeology from which Kushan coins have been recovered.
Ball, 1982: No.1232

Robert Bracey.