Copper and Silver Hoards
The copper coinage of the Kushans has been less studied and is less understood than its gold, but in many ways it is more important. Copper coins were produced in far larger numbers than gold. It was copper, and not gold which was actually used; in cities, by monks, traded across borders. And it is copper that is most frequently found on archaeological sites. The hoards here are presented in the chronological order of the latest coin, but with some alteration for particular types of hoard.
Numbers have been added for ease of reference. One hundred and three hoards were known at that time. Subsequent hoards have been given the number of the hoard they most closely resemble and a letter suffix.
Early Kushan Hoards
Prior to the reforms undertaken in the reigns of Wima Taktu and Wima Kadphises the early Kushan rulers had not one coinage but a series of regional coinages, often based on the weight standards or types of coins already circulating in the area. There are few hoards associated with these coins, mostly noted in connection with earlier rulers.
- #001 Vakhsh Hoard (37.7N, 68.8E) A hoard of eight 'Heraus' type Tetradrachms [A.S2-i 1u: 2a(*5), 3b, 4a].
Davidovich, 1980 [includes complete images]
Abdullaev, 2004: 273
- #002 Dovudi Parcel No.1 (Khatlon Province, Tadjikistan) A group of 23 coins shown to the National Museum of Tadjikistan, said to come from Halkajar (Khurosan, formerly Gazimalik district aprox. 38N 69E). It included 23 coins; 1 unspecified copper, 11 imitation Eucratides, and 11 Heraus type obols (A.S2-i)
- #003 Dovudi Parcel No.2 (No provenance) A group of four 'Heraus' type obols (A.S2-i), probably also from Tadjikistan as they are reported by Dovudi.
- #004 Dovudi Parcel No.16 (Khatlon Province, Tadjikistan) A group of 70 silver obols and one copper coin, 51 are identified by Dovudi as 'Heraues obol' (A.S2-i 1/24u).
- #005 Senior Parcel No. 44 A hoard of copper tetradrachms apparently split 2/3 Zeionises, 1/3 Kajula's Bull & Camel (A.C6) type and claimed to be from the Kashmir region.
- #006 Senior Parcel No.45 (No Provenance) Of similar composition to Senior Parcel No.44 (A.C6) but with still vaguer provenance.
- #006A Srinigar Lot 322 Currently in the Sri Pratap Singh Museum 140 Bull and Camel type coins with an unknown provenance.
- #006B Srinigar Lot 326 Currently in the Sri Pratap Singh Museum 281 Vima Takto bull and camel type coins and 77 Kanishka quarter units, both associated with Kashmir. Provenance unknown.
- #006C Sriniar Lot 5651 Currently in the Sri Pratap Singh Museum 98 Vima Takto bull and camel type coins. Provenance unknown.
- #007 Dheri Shaban Parcel (33.6N, 73E) Five Kujula coins, all of Augustus bust with Emperor Seated on chair type (A.C4-i 1u), are recorded in the Peshawar museum as coming from Dheri Shaban near Rawalpindi. A Huvishka imitationa and 2 Vasudeva coins are recorded from the same place but it seems unlikely they are connected to the Kujula types.
- #008 Taxila Sind Hoard Found during excavations at Taxila a jar contained 21 coins. Two of these were Kujula Kadphises issues usually attributed to Sind (A.S3-i 1/4u).
Marshall, 1951: 211-2
- #009 Itravasu Hoard (No Provenance) 2 posthumous Azes as well as coins of Sasan, the Apracharajas (Aspavarma, Itravasu) and a drachm of Soter Megas
Senior, 2001, No.42
- #010 Mira Dherai Parcel A group of badly corroded coins, one of which was a Soter Megas didrachm of imperial type.
Muhammadzai, 2001: 43-4
- #011 Turdy Bobo Hoard (Tajikistan) Reported to come from the Termez to Dushanbe line in Tajikistan the hoard consisted of 152 Soter Megas coins
Abdullaev, 2004: 273
- #012 Gorin Uzbekistan 1 (37.2N 67.3E) Reported by Masson in 1927, 56 'Soter Megas' coins found near Termez.
Gorin, 2011: Uzbekistan 1
*Masson, M E (1928) Monetnye Naxodki, Zaregistrnovannye v Srednej Azii za Bpremya c.1917g. po 27r.
- #013 Dovudi Parcel No.4 (Tadjikistan) Seen in 2007 a parcel consisting of thirteen Wima Takto described as 'standing figure on reverse' which could indicate Gandharan mint base silver drachms (B.S1-i 1/4u).
- #014 Dovudi Parcel No.3 (Khatlon Province, Tadjikistan) A group of six coins described as 'Soter Megas' and one of smaller denomination. They reportedly came from a pot which contained a dozen.
- #015 Senior Parcel No.49 A parcel of 297 coins; 1 Gondophares, 5 Sarpedon, 4 Sasan, 75 Orthagnes, and 212 Pakores (some overstruck on Soter Megas).
- #016 Takht-i-Sangin 1 1 coin of Antiochus, 1 Euthydemus, 69 Phraates IV imitations, 4 Heraus/Sanab coins of Kujula and 2 Wima Kadphises
Gorin, 2011: Tadjikistan 12
Gangetic Valley Hoards
The Kushan Empire extended to a line running from Mathura to Ahichchatra in the second century AD. With the exception of brief forays and campaigns beyond this point there was never any extended Kushan control deeper into India. To the east of the Kushan Empire dynasties ruled the region around
Ayodhya and Kosam, about whom little is known beyond their coins (though the
dates of the Maghas are known from inscriptions). Kushan coin hoards in this region are all of a very similar character,
consisting of copper coins of Wima, Kanishka, and Huvishka. They were exported in trade after the reduction
of the weight standard under Huvishka.
This group of hoards seem to represent mostly an economic episode late in the second century and were
probably deposited still later. For that reason they are not presented in chronological order but instead
from west to east. As well as hoards in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh, coins towards the end of this list also
come from Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Orissa. The apparent discrepancy
in numbers (there are far more hoards
in this than from any other area) probably reflects scholarly practice, rather than deposition. Many of these
hoards have been discovered from local reports by Gupta, Singh, and Srivistava. If scholars familiar with local
records in other areas were to make similar investigations they would probably turn up comparable numbers of 'new' hoards.
- #017 Sonpipari Parcel, near Nautanwa in the Gorakhpur district. 4 Kanishka, and 6 Huvishka (5 elephant,1 couch, 1 featuring Oado - so probably all early main mint).
- #018 Orai Parcel (26N, 79.5E) Recorded by Srivistava as 302 copper coins of Wima Kadphises and Huvishka, but no Kanishka mentioned.
Srivastava, 1980: no.884
- #019 Bara Parcel, Allahabad district. 2 Wima Kadphises, 2 Kanishka (featuring Wesho), 6 Huvishka, 4 seated, 2 on elephant, so probably early main mint (E.C1-i), 32 worn, 9 dams. If the association between the dams and Kushan coins were correct it would imply the coins were in circulation more than a thousand years later.
Srivastava, 1980: no.301
- #020 Buxar Hoard, Bihar (25.55N, 83.92E). The Buxar hoard is important for the influence it has had on the debate concerning the Eastward expansion of the Empire. Altekar concluded on the basis of the hoard that they held Magadha for about 70 years. It includes 23 Wima Kadphises, 159 Kanishka, 172 Huvishka (presumably of a heavy weight), 38 undecipherable, and 10 Ayodhya coins of the Bull and Cock type including four described as Satyamitra.
- Arha (25N, 80E aprox) Kadphises 44, Kanishka 327, Huvishka 249
Srivastava, 1980: 620
- #021 Beohari Hoard (24.1N, 81.3E). A hoard of 757 coins, consisting of 44 Wima Kadphises, 324 Kanishka, 362 Huvishka, and 27 too worn to be identified. The Huvishka coins described and photographed are all early coins from the main mint.
- #022 Thankurganj Hoard (27.6N, 80.7E) 11 Wima Kadphises, 42 Kanishka, 20 Huvishka.
Srivastava, 1980: no.1108
- #023 Sarai 1894 Hoard (27.1N, 80.3E) 180 Wima Kadphises, 354 Kanishka, 127 Huvishka.
Srivastava, 1980: no.103
- #024 Masarhi (25N, 81E) 13 Kanishka and Huvishka
Srivastava, 1980: no.461
- #025 Bhagesvar (25.3N, 81.6E) Kanishka 25, Huvishka 29, Kushana 617. Bahasatimitra 3.
Srivastava, 1980: No.330
- #026 Partapgarh Hoard (26N, 82E aprox) 45 Wima Kadphises, 45 Kanishka, 59 Huvishka
Srivastava, 1980: no.415
- #027 Benares 1890 (25N, 82E) Reported as 4 copper coins, Wima Kadphises, Kanishka (Wesho), and Huvishka
(cross-legged king with mao).
Srivastava, 1980: no.78
- #028 Basani Hoard (25.45N 82.83E) Found in Varanasi the hoard was reported and examined at the BKB Museum. It consisted of 27 Wima Kadphises, 26 Kanishka including several didrachms, and 147 Huvishka all heavy weight and from the main mint (E.C1-i) as well as 17 Satyamitra and 11 Aryamitra coins.
- #029 Kenda Zamindari in the Bilaspur district (aprox. 22N 82E). A group of 25 coins, 4 of which could be identified (Kanishka and Huvishka) and are now in the Nagpur Museum.
- #030 Jhajpuri Parcel in the Bilaspur district (aprox. 22N 82E). A group of 15 coins, one Kanishka and one Huvishka
were retained by the Nagpur Museum.
- #031 Pendarwa Hoard in the Bilaspur district. If correctly reported this group contained both Kushan and Yaudheya coins.
- #032 Katangi Hoard in the Bilaspur district. 8 Kushan coins found in 1973.
- #033 Sidharia, Azamgarh. Found in 1950 they included Kanishka, Huvishka and Ayodhya Cock and Bull type.
Gupta, 1953: 32
- #034 Nai Parcel, Azamgarh. Found in 1938 a small number including Kanishka, Huvishka, and Cock and Bull types of Ayodhya were shown to P L Gupta.
Gupta, 1953: 32
- #035 Bindwal, Azamgarh. Found in 1949 this hoard consisted of 32 Kanishka and 78 Huvishka (using all three obverses so presumably early main mint coins). The report in JNSI XII contains a remark typical of the way single hoards have been used without context 'That this hoard should contain no coins of Vasudeva and Wima Kadphises would tend to show that the Kushana rule over the U.P. was confined to the reigns of Kanishka and Huvishka only'.
Srivastava, 1980: 996
Gupta, 1953: 32
JNSI XII: 162
- #035b 1970-71 Kapilivastu Hoard, Nepal. Found by a Japanese excavation and reported as containing 2 Indo-Greek Apollodotus, 2 Panchala Agnimitra, 428 Wima Kadphises, 1224 Kanishka, 152 Huvishka. All Huvishka illustrated are early heavy weight types. Other than its size and the presence of Apollodotus and Agnimitra the hoard is typical of the Gangetic types.
- #036 Sahet-Mahet I(27.9N, 82.1E). A group of 105 Kushan coins, 2 Kanishka, 2 Huvishka, 96 Vasudeva.
Gupta, 1953: 32
*ASIAR 1908-9: 35
- #037 Sahet-Mahet II(27.9N 82.1E). A pot found in monastery F contained ‘a small quantity of shell’ plus 5 unidentifiable Kushan, 2 Kanishka, 2 Huvishka, 42 Vasudeva, 54 Kanishka II (the last two are a guess based on the description in the report).
ASIAR 1910-11: 1-25
- #037b Daidih Dhamaha 1897 (25.9N, 82.2E) 39 Copper of Kanishka and Huvishka
Srivastava, 1980: No.173
- #038 Kasia, Gorakhpur district (aprox. 25.5N 83E) 4 Wima, 8 Kanishka.
- #038b Bhindawal (26.1N, 83.2E) 32 Kanishka, 78 Huvishka
Srivastava, 1980: No.996
- #039 Chirand (Saran District, Bihar). During excavation work a hoard of 88 Kushan copper coins was found.
- #040 Laghusa (Gopalganj, Saran District, Bihar). A hoard of several hundred Kusana copper coins mixed with Bull and Cock type
of Ayodhya. Some were deposited in Patna museum between 1963 and 1972.
- #041 Lauria Nandangarh (Champaran district, Bihar). Gupta identified the coins in the Patna museum found in 1939 as
44 Kanishka, 4 Huvishka, and 14 'Punjab type' imitations.
Singh, 1973: 129
- #042 Cherithan (Champaran district, Bihar). A small hoard of Kushan coins reported from 1952.
- #043 Radhia (Motihari, Champaran district, Bihar). A pot containing a considerable number of Kushan coins. Seven acquired by
Patna musuem include Wima Kadphises, Kanishka, and Huvishka.
Singh, 1973: 130
- #044 Rangapur Parcel (26.8N, 85.3E). Mishra doesn’t know how to identify Kushan coins which makes it rather hard to establish exactly what was found in this hoard. The hoard reportedly contained 400-500 coins in a terracotta jar but only two parcels said to be 36 and 6 were recovered. Of these 4 are not identifiable from the descriptions, 1 is Wima, 10 Kanishka, 1 Wima or Kanishka, 25 Huvishka (which puts the count one short). There are statements that imply other types may have been found. The hoard resembles those of the Gangetic valley.
Mishra, Ancient Nepal 75
- #045 Kathmandu Parcel Rhodes (1998) includes a note on a selection of eleven pieces from a Nepalese hoard. The Mananka coins are of 6th century, but he picked out 3 Kanishka, and 3 Huvishka (of heavier weight).
- #046 Utara Hoard Dharbanga District, Bihar. A hoard of 500 Kushan copper coins found wile digging up a tank.
*Annual Report of the K P Jayaswal Research Institute, 1961: 4
- #047 Kositanar Giridh, Hazribagh, Jharkhand. 130 Kushan coins.
- #048 Kayema (Jaypur, Cuttack district, Orissa) currently in the Odisha State Museum which reports 6 Kanishka, 6 Huvishka, and 1 unidentified.
*Orissa Historical Research Journal II: 84-93
Hoards of Puri-Kushan coins alone are known from Orissa but they are usually found in conjunction with Kushan coins. The limited data suggests these are Kushan coins exported from the Ganges region.
- #049 Bhankika Mayurbhanj, Orissa. Coins of Kanishka and Huvishka with Puri-Kushan coins.
Gupta, 1953: 29
*ASIAR 1924-25: 130
- #050 Mayurbhanj, Orissa. 112 Kushan coins with 170 Puri-Kushan coins.
Gupta, 1953: 30
*ASIAR 1924-25: 132
- #051 Purusottampur Ganjam district, Orissa. A hoard of Kushan and Puri-Kushan found in 1858.
MJLS, 1858: 75-78
- #052 Sitabhanji (Konjhar district, Orissa). A hoard of 135 Kushan and Puri-Kushan coins.
- #053 Bhanjakia 1923 (Mayurbhanj district, Orissa). Kanishka and Huvishka coins with Puri-Kushan coins.
Singh, 1973: 134
*JNSI Vol.II: 123
- #054 Bhanjakia 1953 (Mayurbhanj district, Orissa). 1261 Puri-Kushan coins with 1 Kanishka.
- #055 Manika Patana (Puri district, Orissa). 84 Kushan and Puri-Kushan coins
*PASB 1895: 61-65
Wima to Vasudeva
The hoards presented below are mostly assumed to be found inside the Empire, though in the Northwest it is likely there is a similar filtering of coins across the borders of the Kushan Empire though perhaps on a lesser scale than in India.
- #056 Takht-i-Sangin 2 30 Soter Megas types, 65 Vima Kadphises, 1 Kanishka
- #057 Chimgalysh Hoard 3 Wima Kadphises and 7 Kanishka were found during excavation at Chimgalysh in
Tajikistan in 1961.
Abdullaev, 2004: 273
Davidovich, 1979: 36-9
- #058 Ransia, Punjab. Five hundred, copper Wema, Kanishka.
CASR XIV: 48
- #059 Kalka-Kausali Road, Patiala, Punjab 382 Wima Kadphises, 40 Kanishka. Check PASB 1895.
- #059A Srinigar Lot 5631, Currently in the Sri Pratap Singh Museum 137 Kanishka quarter units. Provenance unknown.
- #059B Mingora Parcle, 27 coins, 2 Wima Kadphises (G761), 8 Kanishka didrachms with Greek inscriptions (G766/G767), 14 Kanishka Bactrian tetradrachms (G774, G768, G776, G783, G781) and 3 didrachms (G771, G772).
Tandon, 2010, full images.
- #060 Takht-i-Sangin 4, Vima Kadphises 4, Kanishka 24, Huvishka (early only) 22 all copper
- #061 Serkharakat Parcel. Recovered as a series of different trade groups from 1996 to 1999, a total of 916 coins are believed to have come from a site near Khalchayan in Uzbekistan. 73 Wima Kadphises (C.C1-ii 1u), 476 Kanishka (D.C1-ii 1u, D.C1-iii 1u), 367 Huvishka of an early type (E.C1-i 1u). All are tetradrachms with the exception of two Huvishka coins reported as weighing 6.5g and 8g (no explanation or images provided).
Gorin, 2011: Uzbekistan 2
- #062 Mathura 3 Found at Matha, and containing 254 Vima, 927 Kanishka, 40 Huvishka
Srivistava, 1980: no.1140
- #063 Mathura 2 Found at Bhuteswar, Mathura. Included 298 Wima, 1426 Kanishka, 451 Huvishka
Srivistava, 1989: no.1166
- #064 Shergarh (28N, 80E aprox) 120 copper coins of Kanishka and Huvishka
Srivistava, 1980: no.707
- #065 Utmanzai Parcel in the Charasadda Tahsil ten coins were reported in 1941. Seven were elephant rider Huvishka coins, one a left facing elephant rider, and one shows a bowman. There is also one contemporary fantasy copied from a Kushan. It is possible that the 8 unpictured coins are from the mint which issued types with Kharoshti legends.
- #066 Burns Hoard 1992 (no location known) A parcel of 78 coins Burn’s describes as ‘Tribal Coins’, so essentially crude in character possibly with some Kharoshti (this is his general account he gives). The 6 coins shown are all of the over-weight Phase 1a of the Gandhari Mint.
Haughton 1946: 144-5
- #067 Delhi Parcel 2 official (probably?) Kanishka, 15 crude Kanishka copies (11-15g), and 11(6-9g) and 2 Huvishka (6-9g) all of the stick figure type similar in style to the Puri-Kushan.
- #068 Sunet, Ludhiana (aprox 30.9N, 79.9E) This is the purported find spot of a parcel of 30 coins identified as 28 ‘tribal’ Kushan and 2 ‘Puri’. The latter are probably imitations of Kanishka. The two Huvishka pictured are from the trident group of imitations.
- #069 Rich Parcel This parcel is believed by numismatists working on the Rich collection to be a part of a hoard from Characene at the
head of the Persian Gulf. It contained approximately 500 coins of Maga, a Characene king attributed to roughly the end the second century
but also a Wima and two Kanishka’s (including a seated Ardoxsho).
BMQ XXVIII (1964)
- #070 Ranigat Stupa St22 Found in drill holes behind a stucco Bodhisattva image were fourteen coins; 1 Azes II, 1 Kujula Kadphises, 3 Huvishka, 8 Vasudeva (the discrepancy between the 13 attributed and the 14 claimed is not explained in Behrendt).
Behrendt, 2004: 280 (Behrendt, K The Buddhist Architecture of Gandhara)
Odani, N (1997) "New Discoveries from Ranigat" South Asian Archaeology[Not consulted]
- #071 Yusufzai Country Few Kujula, twice as many as of Wema Kadphises, and nearly equal numbers of Kanishka, Huvishka, Vasudeva and the Nameless King (Soter Megas). Probably not a hoard but a description of what was found.
Chattopadyay, 1967: 232
*CASR V, p.6
- #072 Kanhiara, Punjab. 2 Wima, 1 Kanishka, 1 Vasudeva.
*CASR V, p.176
- #073 Barera 1899 (26N, 79E aprox.), 1 Huvishka Elephant Rider w/Mao, 535 Vasudeva
- #074 Faizalpur (28N 78E aprox) 9 Huvishka (1 El, 1 crossleg, 6 reclining), 97 Vasudeva (the hoard was larger but these were the only ones examined).
- #075 Mir Zakah B: The hoard is frequently claimed to contain Kushan
coins but this seems unlikely and its status as a hoard is questionable.
- #076 Padham, Punjab. 20 Kanishka/Huvishka. 11 Indo-Sasanian coins.
*CASR XI. 38
- #077 Rupar Hoard, found in excavations at Rupar, Ambala District, Pujab, in 1953. 660 copper coins included Vasudeva and Kota types.
Riches, L (1996)'Overstriking of the Kota coinage of North West India c.270-350AD' ONS 148: 18
After Vasudeva I reign ends there are two major sources of Kushan style copper coins. North of the Hindu Kush the Sasanians and then the Kushanshah issue an imitation using Kanishka II style obverses and the Wesho reverse of Vasudeva I. The Kushanshah, Shapur II, and then the Kidarites go on to issue their own copper as well. South of the Hindu Kush the Kushan state continues to issue an official coinage, the issues of particular kings being distinguished by the combinations of kaftan or armour obverse, Wesho or Ardochsho reverse, and various control marks.
Unfortunately these coins have been poorly understood, the first detailed typology is that by Khan in 2011. So many older publications leave the 'post-Vasudeva' or 'Vasudeva imitations' an undifferentiated mass.
Here we distinguish four basic classes of coinage. The first a nominal class of hoards concluding with Kanishka II (or with very few subsequent coins) - which chronologically fit between the end of Vasudeva's reign and the first issues of Kushanshah material. This first group may be a simple effect of the literature which is overly inclined to attribute a coin with Ardochsho reverse to Kanishka II. The second group is certainly real, and probably represents a cline operating between Central Asia and Northern India. The latest Kushan coins are those of Vasishka and Kanishka III or contemporary Kushanshah imitations of Kanishka II/Vasudeva (down to about 5g). These coins often include a few stray examples that betray a particular locality but the bulk are Vasudeva, Kanishka II, and the Kushanshah types. The relative proportion of those alters along the cline - favouring Kushan production in the South and Kushanshah production in the north. The third class are hoards with issues of the Kushano-Sassanian kings or Shapur II. The imitation types are later and the Kushan coins are usually associated with Vasudeva II if they are present. A fourth class of hoard includes coins which drop below 1.6g in weight which indicates the hoard post-dates the end of Kushan production and belongs in the period of Kidarites.
- #078 1946 Begram Hoard (35N 69.3E) Found during excavations by DAFA consisted of 65 late Kushan copper, 4 Vasudeva and 61 Kanishka II
- #079 Bambore Parcel. (25N, 67E) A group seen in trade by MacDowall (1997), claimed to be 10,000. The few examples he illustrates are Kanishka II.
- #080 Termez (37.2N, 67.3E) Found in the vicinity of Termez the hoard contained 14 'Soter Megas', 12 of Vima Kadphises, 21 of Kanishka I, 1 of Huvishka of reduced weight, 3 coins of Vasudeva, 2 coins of Kanishka II and two imitations, one of Vasudeva and one of Kanishka II. This is one of the few very long hoards known.
Gorin, 2011 [full list, only a few pictures]
- #80b Dalverzin-tepe hoard. Found during excavations at the site in the floor of an underground room, B A Turganov reports eight 'imitations of coins of Vasudeva and Kanishka III' and a drachm of Shapur I.
- #081 Kashipur Hard to work out looks like 203 Vasudeva (but the note says '24 Ardoksho' so presumably post-Vasudeva), along with a few coins of Indo-Sassanian, Agnimitra, Bhanumitra, Vishnumitra, and a round cast coin.
Srivistava, 1980: no.942
- #082 Taxila Hoard A Found at Dharmarajika in Taxila during John Marshall's excavation, subsequently published in detail by Khan. 1 Kanishka, 4 Vasudeva, 38 Kanishka II, 15 Vasishka (or imitations), 8 Kanishka III, 413 early Kushanshah types, 2 uncertain, 51 no longer traceable.
Khan, G R, Gandharan Studies 4
- #083 Taxila Hoard B found in a pot at Chir Tope B during John Marshall's excavation, subsequently published in detail by Khan. 1 Vasudeva, 23 Kanishka II, 7 Vasishka, 162 Kushanshah types,1 uncertain, 47 no longer traceable.
Khan, G R, Gandharan Studies 4
- #084 Taxila Hoard C found in cell at Taxila during excavations by John Marshall, subsequently published in detail by Khan. 1 Wima Takto 'Soter Megas' type, 65 Vasudeva, 11 Kanishka II, 8 Vasishka, 33 no longer traceable.
Khan, G R, Gandharan Studies 4
- #084b Peshawar Parcel seized property from Peshawar, and probably a hoard. Now stored with the Department of Archaeology and Museums of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It consists of 20 Vasudeva I, 140 Kanishka II, 39 Vasishka, 13 Kushanshah Imitations (and one illegible coin). Full details and images are available in Cribb et.al.
Cribb, J. Khan, F. & Amanullah, "Late Kushan Copper hoard (?) from the collection of the S.R.O. in Directorate of Archaeology and Museums Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, with Fawad Khan and Amanullah", Ancient Pakistan vol. XXIII,2012, pp.117–143
- #085 Sonkh Pot (27N, 77E). Found at Sonkh during the digging by Hartel. Consisted of 2 Huvishka (Big Head), 9 late Vasudeva, 13 late/imitation Vasudeva, and 92 Kanishka II.
- #086 Mathura Hoard (27N, 77E). Found in Mathura this hoard of coins was transferred to the Museum where it was examined in 2010. An approximate count indicated 3 Huvishka, two from the Mathura mint (E.C3), 1 Vasudeva, 193 coins with Ardochsho reverse probably Kanishka II, 22 Vasishka, and 273 imitations of Vasudeva. At least one Kanishka III was identified in the group. The Vasudeva imitations had weights down to 5g.
- #087 Nasik Teaching Parcel. This group of coins was acquired near Delhi for use at the IIRNS in Nasik with students. 1071 coins were examined in 2010 and an approximate division was 1 Huvishka, 21 Vasudeva, 17 Kanishka II with visible control marks, 686 coins with seated Ardochsho probably Kanishka II, 13 Vasishka, 1 Kanishka III, 4 Kota coins.
- #088 Gorin Uzbekistan 3 Found near the site of Zar-Tepe and reported to contain 442 imitations of Vasudeva and 63 imitations of Kanishka II.
Gorin, 2011: Uzbekistan #3
- #089 Bukhara IV. This hoard was found in 1991 secreted in the base of one of the stupas at the site of Butkara. It contained 1 drachm of Vima Kadphises, 1 Greek Inscription Nanaia of Kanishka, 4 Wesho mint coins of Huvishka, 1 Pharro of Huvishka (from Ardoxsho/Pharro group), 1 imitation, Mao with diadem enclosing the tamgha type (G916). 3 Vasudeva issues, all with trident over altar, two have a visible Soter Megas symbol, GR 13. 8 imitations of Vasudeva ranging from 8.2 to 4.88g, several having a visible triangle. There are then 5 Kanishka II (no. 301, 308, 309, 315, 317), the rest, 19, being imitations of Kanishka II ranging from 8.42g to 5.06g). There are then 2 Kushano-Sasanians with Kabod/Fire Altar design of Hormizd I, weighing 3.25 to 2.98.
- #090 Taxila Hoard D found at the Dharmarajika in excavations by John Marshall and subsequently published by Gul-Rahim Khan. 2 Kanishka II imitatios, 367 late Kushanshah types (Khan's F*4), 48 Hormizd I Kushanshah, 2 Peroz II Kushanshah, 1 Uncertain late Kushan.
Khan, G R Gandharan Studies IV
- #091 Taxila Parcel 1981 Presently in the BM with tickets FIDA 1980-6-10. This parcel of 28 coins, contains 2 Hormizd I Kabod coin, a Siva of uncertain type, two KU7 and a KU6. Imitations of the delta group (2), and 20 of the imitations that descend into parallel lines (Eb).
Coin Hoards VI, 1981 no.299
- #092 Coin Hoards 1981, 303 (In Pakistan, but location unknown). 563 coins in trade. Piruz I: 12, Hormizd I, Kabod: 123, Hormizd I, Meze: 281, Hormizd II, Meze: 1, Piruz II, Meze: 5, Unclear Kushano-Sasanian: 3, Shapur II, Kabod: 16, Shaboro: 46, illegible mint: 46. Imitations of Vasudeva to lined Siva: 13, Kanishka III or more likely imitation: 2, Vasu coins with Ardoxsho on throne: 18 (of which 8 overstruck on Hormizd I, Kabod).
- #093 Turkmenistan Parcel. Reportedly from Turkmenistan and acquired by the Pushkin Museum in 2002. The publication lists the coins acquired by the Museum as: Vasudeva imitations 136, Ardashir (G1028), Hormizd (G1032-37) 9, (G1051-75) 63, Piruz (G1081) 5, Hormizd (G1091) 5, Varahran (G1092) 1, Prizu (G1101) 11, Piruz (G1105-1108) 21, Shapur (G1114) 1, Kabad (G1122-1124) 51, Hormizd (G1125) 59, Piruz (G1127) 7. The publication also lists the numbers reportedly with dealers and pictures a sample of the Kushanshah types.
Gorin, 2011: Turkmenistan 2 [check - discrepency in numbers]
- #094 Khalach Parcel (38.1N, 64.9E) The exact find spot or circumstances are not known. A group of 17 coins, 5 Hormizd I, and 12 Kushanshah imitations of Vasudeva with curved hems (F.imit-C1) to the kaftans weighing 1.18-2.87g.
Gutlyev, G & Nikitin, A B (1987)
Gorin 2011: Turkmenistan #1
- #095 Mathura 5: (27N, 77E) Containing 1541 coins, with an imitation Huvishka, 2 Vasudeva, mostly late Kushan with a large number of Kushano-Sassanian
- #096 Bhuj City (23.25N, 69.8E) 236 of post-Kushan types (Siva, fire altars etc), a few of the Shaka/Kipunadha standard, the rest below 1.6g in weight, all roughly cut. A Western Ksatrap coin of Bhartrdaman, year 214 (292 AD) was found with it.
- #096A Purana Qila Lot 65 322 coins, mostly 1-2g late Kushan or associated Kidarite or imitations. Many are cut and all are corroded or worn, found in Jhukar (Pakistan).
- #097 Und (Ohind) (Pakistan). 146 copper coins, Kushano-Sasanian (Hormizd I Meze, Shapur II Shaboro) and the rest al sub 1.6g (thus post-kushan) coins with Ardoxsho, or a single 3 line siva.
Coin Hoards VI 1981 No.304.
- #098 Senior No.51, Late Indo-Parthian, some imitations of Pakores overstruck on imitations of Vasudeva.
- #099 Hund Pot. Pakistan. Found by a workman, a group claimed to be about 9000 coins. The broken bronze pot in which they were found was presented to the Peshawar Museum. Impressions of the coins remain and they appear to be of late Kushan type
(Personal Correspondence – Gul Rahim Khan).
- #100 Kanjur Stone Hoard (33.7N 72.8E) A hoard of 355 coins found at the site of the Dharmarkika at Taxila concealed behind a stone with a copper bangle, a shell bangle, and three copper rings. It is described as containing coins from Azes II and Rajavula to Shapur II which makes it the longest time span of any hoard from a secure context.
Marshall, 1951: 239-40
Khan, 2010: 41
- #101 Akhun Dheri Parcel. In Peshawar museum a group of 32 Vasudeva II coins (seated king type) are
recorded as having been purchased at Akhun Dheri, Charsadda.
Ali, 2004: 226-236
- #102 Mathura 4(27N, 77E) Found at Mathura, containing 593 coins, apparently containing late Kushan types with Brahmi letters on obverse attributed to Shaka.
- #103 Bamnauli (29.2N, 77.6E) UPCH 799. 370 copper, 1 silver. Of which 48 were Late Kushan, 19 anonymous Yaudheya. Then the rest are much, much later medieval coins. Worth investigating further.
- #104 Theh Polar (29.4N 77E) Excavations in the early 1980s discovered a hoard of 232 coins in a pot consisting of Yaudheya and a mixture of post-Vasudeva Kushan coins (exact types are unclear from the description.
H.L. Srivastava ‘Excavations at Theh Polar, District Karnal’ AR ASI 1930-34, pp.142-145